Loe

Siin lehel oleme kogunud Sinu jaoks valikut huvitavatest artiklitest NLP teemal eriautoritelt nii Eestist, kui ka kogu maailmast. Eriti oleme keskendunud empiiriliste andmetega artiklitele, sest just need annavad meile teada, kuivõrd NLP kasutamine on õigustatud ja toimiv. Seda enam, et maailmas on NLP ümber palju vaidlusi. Esineb ka kriitikat. Enamasti kriitika puudutab asjaolu, et NLP kui teraapia või inimese psüühika korrektsiooni instrument ei sisalda empiirilisi uuringuid. Just seda asjaolu on paljud autorid võtnud endale prioriteediks ja praeguseks, kui NLP loomisest on möödunud mitmed aastad, on kogunud ka praktiline materjal erinevate tehnikate terapeutilise mõju osas. Loe ja saa targemaks!

NLP ARTIKLID

NLP — tervisliku mõtlemise kunst

Kuidas teisiti seletada, kui me näiteks mõtleme endamisi „ma ei saa sellega kunagi hakkama”, „igavene …, ta teab täpselt, et see solvab mind!”, „no kuidas ta küll ometi sellest lihtsast asjast aru ei saa!”, „mu tervis on täitsa läbi …”

Esiteks me ei märka, kuidas need salakavalad ja peidetud mõtted takistavad elamast kvaliteetsemalt. Teiseks ei tule meil pähegi, et võiksime toimida või mõelda kuidagi teisiti. Ja kolmandaks — isegi kui tuleb, ei oska me midagi muuta, millestki alustada.

NLP on võtnud eesmärgiks seda viga parandada ja on viimastel aastakümnenditel põhjalikult mõtlemise peensusi uurinud. Selgitatud seaduspärasuste alusel õpetab NLP meid iseenda ja teiste inimeste mõtlemist paremini tundma. Kui me seda tunneme, siis saame seda ka muuta. Seega — NLP ei ole müstika valdkonna mõiste, see on uuringutel põhinev kaasaegne psühholoogia suund.

NLP on lühend sõnadest neuro-lingvistiline programmeerimine. Kokkuvõtlikult võib öelda, et see on rakenduspsühholoogia haru, mis sisaldab kolme peamist koostisosa — kuidas mõtleme, ennast väljendame ja kas on see seotud meie käitumisega.

NLP filosoofia nagu ka teised süsteemsed lähenemised, põhineb seegi mingitel baas-põhimõtetel.

NLP ei ütle, mis on hea ja halb, mis on õige ja vale, vaid ütleb, et iga käitumisviis ja mõte võib teatud hetkel olla sellele konkreetsele inimesele kasulik või kahjulik. „Kaart ei ole territoorium” — see väljendab arusaama, et igaühe kogemus on erinev — territoorium on küll üks, ent igaühel meist on veidi erinev kaart sellest. Iga inimese kaart on tema jaoks õige ning seda tuleb aktsepteerida ja mõista.

Kui sa muudad oma mõtteid, muutuvad ka tulemused, mida saavutad.

NLP põhineb ideel anda igale inimesele ligipääs kõigile tema ressursidele pluss saavutada soovitut kiiremini ja lihtsamalt, selle asemel et aega ja jõudu kasutada asjade ja situatsioonide peale, mis töötavad elus soovitava vastu.

Õppimine on nagu meeldiv rännak huvitavate kaaslastega — pikk ja rahulik, kus on palju põnevaid peatuspunkte ja kus avastad midagi päris uut ning teistsugust, mille olemasolust ei teadnud enne midagi. Oluline osa õpetusest käib n.ö parema ajupoolkera kaudu, mis ei ole sirgjooneline ja loogiline (neid omadusi kasutame tänapäeval liigagi palju) vaid suhtleb maailmaga loomingulisemalt, intuitiivsemalt. Selleks vestab õpetaja palju lugusid, kasutab metafoore, millele tähenduse leiame lähtudes oma mõttemaailmast.

Minul on mitmeid lemmiklugusid, mida on minu grupile vestnud meie õpetaja Alexander Kotchubei. Jagan ka teiega üht oma lemmikut:

Ühes väikeses linnas elas Tark. Kõik linnaelanikud austasid ja armastasid teda, sest ta aitas neid alati õigete vastuste ja nõuannetega ning oli lahke ja abivalmis. Samas linnas elas ka Kade inimene, kes tahtis kõigile näidata, et Tark ei ole üldse nii tark. Ühel päeval mõtles tema välja plaani: lähen püüan kinni ühe lepatriinu, võtan ta oma pihkude vahele ja lähen linnaväljakule, kus kõik on taas Targa ümber kogunenud.

Astun kõigi nähes tema juurde ja küsin: Tark, kui sa oled nii tark, siis tead sa kõiki õigeid vastuseid. Mul on siin pihkude vahel üks lepatriinu — ütle, kas ta on elus või surnud… Kui ta siis vastab, et elus, siis ma surun märkamatult peod kokku ning näitan, et lepatriinu on surnud. Kui ta vastab, et surnud, siis ma teen peopesad lahti, lepatriinu lendab ära ning kõik näevad, et Tark eksis.

Olles oma plaaniga väga rahul tegigi kade inimene kõik nagu kavandatud ning astus linnaväljakul Targa juurde, ise lepatriinut peos hoides. „Tark, kui sa oled nii tark ja tead alati õigeid vastuseid, vasta mulle — mul on pihkude vahel üks lepatriinu, kas ta on elus või surnud?”… Tark vaatas sügavalt kadedale inimesele silma ning vastas: „Kõik on Sinu kätes.”

Ja veel üks lugu:

Tark küsis hobuste müüja käest: “Miks sul üks hobune maksab kümme korda rohkem kui teine?” “Sellepärast, et ta jookseb kümme korda kiiremini.” “Kui ta aga jookseb teises suunas, siis ta jookseb kümme korda kiiremini sihist eemale”. Müüja mõtles — ja võttis hinda alla.

Kasu inimese jaoks

Pean valmistama teile pettumuse. NLP ütleb — me ei tea praegu, miks see sinu jaoks kasulik on. Kui seda tundma ja kasutama õpid, siis saame teada, milline on selle kasu Sinu jaoks. Kuna NLP on kogum erinevaid praktilisi tehnikaid, siis igaüks leiab üles need, mis on vajalikud just temale.

 

  • Ühe inimese jaoks on kõige olulisemad tehnikad, mis aitavad suhtlemises konflikte ennetada, teisest inimesest paremini aru saada.
  • Teise jaoks need, mis aitavad enda jaoks selgitada oma eesmärke, otsustada, millises suunas minna edasi, kui oleme ummikus.
  • Kolmas tahaks pääseda oma lõputust muretsemisest.
  • Neljandal on mingi segav minevikukogemus, millest ta ei ole suutnud vabaneda ning mis segab täisväärtuslikult elamast.
  • Viiendal on lihtsalt suur huvi enesearengu erinevate võimaluste suhtes.

    Mõned näited

    Inimese mõtlemise anatoomia — selle teema alla on koondatud see, mida NLPs nimetatakse mõtlemise struktuuriks. Kui keegi küsib teilt, kuidas täpselt te hetkel mõtlete, siis usun, et jääte vastuse võlgu, kuna puudub kirjeldamise struktuur. Kasutame nii mõtlemisel kui mälestuste talletamisel kolme erinevat kanalit:

    * visuaalne — pildid
    * auditiivne — helid
    * kinesteetiline — liigutused, lõhnad, puudutused, maitsed, füüsilised reaktsioonid.

    Mida see teadmine meile annab? Esiteks võimaldab see meil oma kogemusi ja mõtlemist täpselt kirjeldada. See omakorda võimaldab sisse viia muutusi, kuna meil on teada meie mõtete „koostisosad” — kui sul on teada retsepti koostis, siis saad ise valida, millise koogi sa täpselt küpsetad.

    Veel läbitakse põhikursusel mitmeid teemasid:

    Eesmärkide seadmise kunst — tehnikad selleks, et aru saada, mida üldse elus soovime saavutada, ja selleks, et oskaksime neid ka saavutada.

    Emotsionaalne tasakaal — omandame tehnikaid, mis aitavad kontrolli alla saada oma emotsioone, saavutada sisemist rahu ja tasakaalu erinevates olukordades.

    Uskumused — teema, kus tegeldakse oma veendumustega maailma, inimeste ja nähtuste kohta. Uskumused võivad olla väga tugeva toetava ning ka väga tugeva takistava mõjuga. Analüüsime oma uskumusi ja õpime vabanema piiravatest uskumustest. Näiteks on üks tavaline piirav uskumus: „seda ma ei saa teha”. Võime avastada, et oleme siiani ise endale seadnud piire, mida tegelikkuses ei eksisteeri…

    Lingvistika ehk eneseväljenduse kunst — siin õpime tundma inimese kõne ja mõtlemise seoseid. See, kuidas ennast väljendame, peegeldab, kuidas me mõtleme. Selle teema õppimisel on kaks põhieesmärki — saada paremini aru teiste inimeste mõtlemisviisist nende sõnade kaudu ja teiseks väljendada ennast soovitud viisil (selgemalt, segasemalt, mõjutavamalt jne).

    Ajaliinid — põnev teema, mida võiks nimetada „psühholoogiliseks ajamasinaks”. See võimaldab näha oma elu, erinevaid sündmusi ja tegevusi subjektiivsel ajaliinil ning mööda seda ka liikuda. Aeg on iga inimese sees subjektiivselt paigutatud. Ajaliini tehnika võimaldab omavahel kokku viia meie soovid ja võimalused, paremini oma elu planeerida, sündmusi edukamalt lõpule viia.

    NLP on terviklik ja põnev maailm, mis annab kätte võtmed. Milliseid uksi avate, on teie valik.

Autor: Anneli Varjun

Erinevate meelesüsteemide kasutamine muusikaõpetuses

Igal inimesel on oma domineeriv meelesüsteem, mille kaudu ta võtab vastu informatsiooni ning mida ta kasutab meenutamisel ja enese väljendamisel. Neurolingvistiline programmeerimine (NLP) nimetab seda mõtlemise struktuuriks ning eristab seejuures kolme erinevat kanalit e meelesüsteemi: visuaalne, auditiivne ja kinesteetiline (VAK). Iga inimene kasutab oma elus kõiki neid kanaleid, kuid eelistab tavaliselt ühte või kahte.

  • Visuaalne – piltide abil mõtlejad.
    Kasutavad mõtlemisel ja meenutamisel reaalselt nähtavaid pilte ja kujutluspilte. Ümbritsevat tajudes on oluline üldpilt. Rikka fantaasiaga. Nad on kärsitud, kui näevad organiseerimatust.
  • Auditiivne – väliste helide ja sisemiste häälte abil mõtlejad.
    Ümbritsevat tajudes võivad olla häiritud ka vaiksest segavast helist. Naudivad vestlusi ja kuulamist. Head jutuvestjad.
  • Kinesteetiline – liigutuste ja tunnete abil mõtlejad.
    Neile on oluline ümbritseva kogemine: liigutused, lõhnad, puudutused, maitsed, füüsilised reaktsioonid. Viibivad meeleldi teiste lähedal. Tugevalt intuitiivsed. On head näitlejad. Ümbritsevas maailmas on nad enamasti orienteeritud inimestele, tegevustele ja naudingutele.

Milleks meile see teadmine?

Teadlikkus meelesüsteemidest võimaldab meil oma eeldusi paremini ära kasutada. Selgemaks saavad enda põhilised info töötlemise ja talletamise viisid. Samuti võimaldab see kergemini jõuda teistega n-ö ühisele lainele. Enda kogemusi ja mõtlemist täpsemalt tundes võime vajaduse korral teha muudatusi nii info töötlemisel ja talletamisel kui ka enda väljendamisel.

Kindlasti on mõtlemisstiilide tundmine tõhus abivahend õpetaja jaoks laste loomulike eelduste äratundmisel ning kõigile sobivate õpetamisviiside kavandamisel. Siinkohal ei kutsu me üles lapsi diagnoosima, vaid oma tööle avarama pilguga vaatama, et erinevaid õpetamise viise kasutades jõuda võimalikult paljude lasteni.

Tänapäeva maailmas tuleb arvestada ka tõsiasjaga, et me elame visuaalse ja auditiivse müraga üleküllastatud keskkonnas. Kinesteetiline osa meist aga on pigem „alatoidetud”. Meie mõtlemisviis, keha ja ka kõne moodustavad ühe süsteemi, s.t meie mõtlemine peegeldub nii meie kehas kui ka keelekasutuses. Siit tuleneb loogiline järeldus, et nii enda kui ka laste mõtlemisstiilide äratundmiseks on üheks tõhusamaks meetodiks vaatlemine ja jälgimine.

Milliste märkide järgi mõtlemisstiile ära tunda?

Visuaalne Auditiivne Kinesteetiline
Silmavaade

meenutamisel

Üleval Keskel All
Kehahoiak Pinges,    sirge,    pea

püsti, silmkontakt

Õlg või õlad ees, vähe

kehakeelt,                 vähe

silmkontakti

Lõdvestunud, liikuv, pea

all

Liigutused ja

žestid

Käed sageli üleval,

sest joonistavad pilte

õhku.           Liiguvad

ainult käed

Aeglane. Käed tavaliselt

paigal, vähe liikumist

Kogu    keha    võtab    osa

žestikuleerimisest.     Käed

suunatud tavaliselt alla

Hingamine Pinnaline,            kõri

ülemises osas

Diafragma-hingamine Sügav, ohetega
Hääle

tonaalsus

Kõrge Keskmine Madal
Kõne     tempo

ja rütm

Kiire,

vahel purskena

Tasane,     ilus     tämber,

vähe     pause,     rikkalik

sõnavara

Aeglasem,               pausid,

ohkamised,                 vahel

häälitsused

Sageli

esinevad

sõnad ja

fraasid

vaatepilt,

väljavaade,

kujutluspilt,

pilguheit, nägemus,

illusioon,              üle

vaatama, märkama,

ilmutama,    näitama,

ette               nägema,

paistma, selginema,

peegeldama,

silmitsema,

illustreerima …

Kohtume        silmast

silma. See asi on

selge.    Ma    vaatan

seda asja lähemalt.

Mul on sellest üsna

ähmane       arusaam.

Lugu    tuli    ilmsiks.

Lahendus    vilksatas

korraks silme ees.

rütm, toon, heli, kurt,

vaikne,     vali,     sõnatu,

lahkheli,             kuuldav,

monotoonne,

harmooniline,        kõlav,

arutama,          rõhutama,

kuulutama, hüüdma …

See on minu jaoks nagu

hiina     keel.     Muusika

minu kõrvadele. Samal

lainepikkusel.       Täielik

kooskõla.              Räägin

kurtidele         kõrvadele.

Võtan      sind      kuulda.

Luba, ma seletan. Kuula

ennast.

tundlik, tundetu, magus,

mõru, värske, mahlakas,

raske, kerge, külm, soe,

tõuge,                         pinge,

käegakatsutav,       rõõmus,

vihane, maitsma, kogema,

haistma, riivama, survet

avaldama, käsile võtma,

lükkama …

Ma haaran sellest mõttest

kinni. See lisab olukorrale

vürtsi. Ma võtan sinuga

ühendust. Haakusin kohe

selle    teemaga.    Kui    sa

kergitaksid     saladuskatte.

Mul tuleb kananahk ihule.

 Kuidas mõtlemisstiilid mõjutavad õpistiili?

Visuaalse õpistiili esindajale meeldib asju näha ja ette kujutada.

Talle on omane pildimälu. Eelistab õppematerjale, mida saab näha/vaadata. Mäletab tervikut ning suudab leida detaile ükskõik millises järjekorras, mistõttu suudab mäletada suurt mahtu. Raskusi on sõnaliste juhendite meeldejätmisega. Kasuks tuleb kirjalike tööde illustreerimine (värvilised või allajoonitud pealkirjad ja tähtsamad lõigud, pildid, joonised, graafikud).

Õppimiseks sobivad: raamatud, videod, mõttekaardid, märkmete tegemine, diagrammid, tabelid, postrid, kaardid, joonised, filmid, arvuti. Koht ja aeg: paremini sobib üksi olles õppimine. Soovitav on töötada eemal visuaalsest mürast. Mõnele visuaalsele õppijale sobib vaikne taustmuusika.

Auditiivse õpistiili esindajale meeldib uusi ideid kuulata ja neist rääkida.

Õpib eeskätt kuulmismeele vahendusel. Eelistab õppematerjale sõnalisel kujul kuulda. Kassetimälu aitab meenutada asjade järgnevust – vaja leida vaid kassetil õige koht. Oluline on asjade loogilisus ja järgnevus. Vajab aega räägitu/kuuldu talletamiseks. Selgitab asju endale üle. Lugedes liigutab huuli. Mäletab, mida ja kuidas öeldi. Esitab häid ja raskeid küsimusi.

Õppimiseks sobivad: loogiline ja süsteemne seletamine, arutelud, endale ette lugemine, lindistused, taustmuusika, laulmine. Tekstide õppimisel on heaks abivahendiks riimi kasutamine. Koht ja aeg: võimaluse korral õppida koos sõbraga, et teineteisele ette lugeda ning omavahel õpitu üle rääkida – nii aitab kuulamine õpitavat omandada. Hästi jääb meelde ka see, mida ise teistele selgitab või õpetab. Õppimist toetavad rütm ja muusika.

Kinesteetilise õpistiili esindaja eelistab õppimise ajal liikuda ja kõike käeliselt läbi teha.

Ta vajab elamusi ja teadmisi selle kohta, milliseid tundeid asjad tekitavad: puudutamine, kirjutamine jne. Õpib ka kujutluspiltide kaudu, aga alles siis, kui need jõuavad tunneteni.
Lihasmälu – mäletab seda, milles sai osaleda; mäletab asju nende asukoha järgi. Kasuks tuleb, kui kirjutatu on süsteemne ja seda on kena vaadata.
Vajab palju aeglasemat seletust kui teised, sest tahab enne proovida ja siis otsustada. Õppimisstiiliks on süsteemne tegutsemine: tee algul seda, siis seda jne. Kasuks on tervikult osadele meetod: esmalt omandada loetavast üldpilt (lugeda pealkirjad ning esimene ja viimane lõik) ja seejärel lugeda kogu tekst tervikuna.

Õppimiseks sobivad: liikumine, mõttekaardid, läbimängimine, kordamise ajal kõndimine, jalalabade liigutamine, sõrmeharjutused, stressipalli mudimine.
Koht ja aeg: vajab mugavat kohta ja asendit. Tunnetega seotuse tõttu vajab ühelt tegevuselt teisele üleminekuks aega. Võib sobida õppimine muusika saatel (v.a vali rütmimuusika). Parim on teha 15–25 minuti õppimise järel 3–5-minutine paus.

Mida teha muusikatunnis?

Mitmetes õppeainetes domineerivad nende spetsiifikast lähtuvalt erinevad meelesüsteemid: kehalises kasvatuses ja tööõpetuses kinesteetiline, kunstiõpetuses visuaalne, keeltes ja muusikas auditiivne. Muusika õpetamisel on tähtsaimaks kuulamine ja kuulmine. Seega on kõik auditiivne muusikatunnis esiplaanil. Siit tekib vajadus tuua muusikatundidesse rohkem visuaalseid ja kinesteetilisi õppetegevusi.

Oleme harjunud, et näitlikustamist ja liikumist kasutatakse pigem lasteaias ja algkoolieas. Kuid kindlasti on igas klassis, sõltumata laste vanusest, erinevate meelesüsteemide kaudu õppijaid. Selleks, et õppematerjal kindlamalt igaüheni jõuaks, tulebki kasutada õpetamist erinevate meelte kaudu kõigis kooliastmetes. Loodame, et järgnevad näited pakuvad selleks inspiratsiooni.

Laulmine ja salmide lugemine

Visuaalne:

  • valmis illustratsioonid (fotod, slaidid, reprod vm);
  • laulupliiats – kujutada laulust kõige olulisemaid sõnu piltidena;
  • käpiknukud;
  • nähtamatud sõnad – laulu tekst kirjutada tahvlile. Laulda laulu mitu korda järjest. Samal ajal kustutada sõnu tahvlilt vähemaks. Lõpuks on tahvel tühi, aga silmadega järge hoides võib ette kujutada sinna varem kirjutatud sõnu.

Auditiivne:

  • keskendumine kuulamisele:
    • intonatsioon
    • muusika väljendusvahendid (meloodia, harmoonia, dünaamika, tämber )
  • kajamängud.

Kinesteetiline:

  • teksti iseloomustavate liigutuste kaasanäitamine – laulda sõnu ka „tummalt/mõttes”, tehes vaid liigutusi;
  • lõdvestumisharjutused;
  • hingamise tunnetamine:
    • küünlamäng – laps kujutab, et tema sõrmed on „küünlad”. „Küünlakarbiks“ on rusikas. Laps võib „süüdata” kõik küünlad korraga või teha seda ükshaaval. Süütamisel sirutatakse sõrm(ed) rusikast välja. Kui kõik „küünlad” „põlevad”, hakkab laps neid ühekaupa ära puhuma. Kustutatud „küünal” ehk sõrm kõverdatakse taas rusikasse;
    • mesilaspesa – lapsed moodustavad kobaras seistes mesilaspesa, mis „sumiseb” (ümiseb) kokkulepitud häälikul.

Pillimäng

Visuaalne:

  • noodi või piltkirja järgi mängimine – noodistus viiel noodireal, graafiline noodistus (jooned, punktid, kriipsukesed), värvide kasutamine erinevate helikõrguste märkimiseks;
  • kujutlusharjutused – pala mängimine oma kujutlustes (laval, ekraanil).

Auditiivne:

  • kajamängud;
  • kuulamismängud: kellahelide kuulamine. Õpetajal on mitu erinevat kellukest või kuljust. Lapsed sulevad silmad ja kuulavad, kuidas õpetaja neid kordamööda helistab. Pärast kuulamist peavad õpilased välimuse järgi otsustades reastama pillid laua peale järjekorras, nagu õpetaja neid helistas. Alustuseks piisab kahest kellast. Vilumuse suurenedes võib kellade hulka suurendada.

 

Kinesteetiline:

  • ettevalmistavad harjutused – sõltuvalt instrumendist kasutada näpuharjutusi,
    pillimänguliigutuste imiteerimist ilma pillita;
  • lõdvestusharjutused;
  • pillide meisterdamine.

Muusikaline liikumine

Visuaalne:

  • tantsuskeemi joonistamine – olulisemad pidepunktid tantsus kujutada tahvlil;
  • näppudega tants – kuulata tantsumuusikat ja imiteerida näppudega tantsuliigutusi ja
    liikumise suunda;
  • kujutlusharjutused – panna silmad kinni ja tantsida mõttes.

 

Auditiivne:

  • keskendumine muusika väljendusvahenditele – meetrum, rütm, meloodia, tempo,
    dünaamika, tämber, faktuur.

 

Kinesteetiline:

  • tantsud ja laulumängud;
  • peegli- ja kajamängud;
  • näpumängud, kehapillil mängimine, lõdvestusharjutused.

Omalooming

Omalooming võimaldab VAK süsteemi hästi kasutada. Ülesande võiks püstitada nii, et selle

lahendamiseks oleks mitu võimalust. Rühmatöös võtavad lapsed endale sageli alateadlikult selle

rolli, mis neile kõige paremini sobib.

Muusika kuulamine ja muusikalugu

Visuaalne:

  • erinevad illustratiivsed materjalid – tutvustada heliloojaid, esitajaid, ajastuid, stiile,
    koosseise, instrumente, tegelasi, karaktereid jne;
  • tabelid, mõistekaardid – ajastutabel, žanritabel, mõistekaart sümfooniorkestri pillidest ja muusika väljendusvahenditest, postrid ansamblitest jne;
  • muusika värvimine – meeleolu, dünaamika, faktuur, ülesehitus jne.

Kuna joonistamine on aktiivne ja tunnetega seotud, toetab see ka kinesteetilist õpistiili.

 

Auditiivne:

  • jutustamine – muusika kirjeldamisel püstitada erinevaid küsimusi;
  • suulised ettekanded – referaadid, rühmatöö kokkuvõtted vm.

 

Kinesteetiline:

  • tantsimine – ajaloolised ja erinevate maade rahvaste tantsud;
  • liigutuste ja pantomiimi kasutamine – ajastule, stiilile või žanrile iseloomulike osade või
    rollide kehastamine;
  • kinniste silmadega helide järgi liikumine;
  • muusika järgi voolimine;
  • pala kuulates lõhnaelamustele keskendumine.

Muusikaline kirjaoskus

Visuaalne:

  • astmetrepp, astmeredel;
  • käemärkide näitamine;
  • vahendid rütmide õppimiseks – kastanimunad, vahtralehed, paberist lumehelbed ja lilled. Vahendite erinevad suurused kujutavad ta, ti-ti, ta-a või tiri-tiri rütmi. Õpetaja laob kujunditest rütmipildi, mida mängitakse keha- või rütmipillil
  • vahendid muusikapala vormi selgitamiseks. Lisaks tavapärasele tähtedega tähistamisele
    (A, B jt) kasutada käepäraseid vahendeid, nt toole, pille, pillipulki vm.

Auditiivne:

  • õpilane õpetab – moodustada paarid või rühmad; üks õpilane seletab teistele õpitavat

Kinesteetiline:

  • rütmide koputamine/plaksutamine/patsutamine;
  • rütmide mängimine rütmipillidel;
  • käemärkide näitamine;
  • kehapill – plaksutada, patsutada e mängida kehapillil meetrumit ja rütmivorme;
  • kõndimine, marssimine, jooksmine – vastavalt muusika meetrumile liikuda ruumis
    erinevates kujundites (läbisegi, mööda ringi, ussina);
  • vahendid rütmide õppimiseks – kastanimunad, vahtralehed, paberist lumehelbed ja lilled.
    Õpilane laob vahenditest rütmimudeli enda ette lauale ja esitab selle keha- või rütmipillil;
  • rütmipuudutused ehk telefonimäng:
    • kõikistuvad ringis ja hoiavad üksteisel kätest  Mängu alustaja pigistab
      kõrval istuva lapse kätt mingis rütmis (nt ta  ta  ti-ti  ta). Iga laps annab rütmi
      järgmisele samamoodi edasi. Viimane nimetab rütmi valju häälega;
    • mängijadseisavad või istuvad üksteise selja  Kolonnis kõige viimane laps
      mängib hääletult ja selgelt eesistuja õlgadel kokkulepitud pikkusega rütmimotiivi. Iga
      järgmine laps kordab rütmi eesistuja õlgadel. Viimane nimetab rütmi valju häälega;
  • arutleda, mis värvi ja maitsega on helilaadid või intervallid.

Õppekäigud

Hea õppekäik sisaldab kõiki VAK süsteemi osasid – midagi huvitavat vaatamiseks, põnevat kuulamiseks ja tegemiseks ning hinge puudutavaid elamusi tunnete talletamiseks. Sõltumata east ja rühma suurusest ootab iga õppija individuaalset lähenemist. Ootab seda, et õpetuses miski teda isiklikult puudutaks, talle korda läheks. Õpetus VAK süsteemis ei ole võluvits, aga kindlasti on see üks võimalus oma töö elavdamiseks, et ka suures rühmas jõuda võimalikult paljude lasteni. Õpetaja jaoks on oluline teadvustada iseenda õppimise ja õpetamise stiil. Seejärel tuleb mõelda, kuidas lisaks enda eelistatud stiilile tuua õppetöösse ka teisi meelesüsteeme.



Autorid:
Tuuli Jukk,
Põltsamaa Muusikakool
Merike Kuivits, Viljandi Huvikool

Beliefs, Values and the Vacuum of Choice

Let us start by posing one of several questions of relevance to Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP) and therapeutic change, which I intend to answer through the course of this article; a full discussion of many other aspects of language, communication and change are explored elsewhere (see Jemmer, 2004 a - b, 2005 a - k). The first question is this: what are beliefs? If facts are subjective representations about what actually happened in the past, beliefs are conjectural generalisations about what will happen in the future. They are intangible and unconscious and yet, as McAdams (1993) explains, they still drive our behaviour. Linguistically, beliefs are often prefaced by the 'modal' phrases 'I can... I can't... I should... I mustn't... I ought.' O'Connor and McDermott (2001) sum things up as follows: "When people tell you they believe something, they are either telling you of a value they hold dear or their best guess in the absence of knowledge.
Beliefs answer the question 'Why?' ". Beliefs are formed from birth and represent one facet of the 'Programming' aspect of NLP. Many beliefs are inherited from our parents through our upbringing, and others are formed haphazardly throughout life, especially through sudden unexpected conflict, trauma or confusion. Many beliefs become anchored simply through repetition! Beliefs may be empowering or limiting.
However, as we have seen, we can change states and we ean change the submodalities of our representational systems. By doing both of these together we can actually replace old, outdated, limiting beliefs with new, empowering ones, as long as this is done in a congruent and ecological way.
Jemmer (2004a) discusses in detail the perceptual filtering process by which we screen the sensory data bombarding us, and in the process create our own personal 'map of the World.' O'Connor (2001), gives an excellent summary of the relationships between the world of 'real experience' (perceived through sensory filters) and the way in which this is incorporated into the personal map by the application of mental constructs based on our conditioning by, for example, societal, cultural, religious and parental influences.

The process operates in the following way:
'Pure experience has no meaning. It just is. We give it meaning according to our beliefs, values, preconceptions, likes and dislikes. The meaning of an experience is dependent on the context. Reframing is changing the way you perceive an event and so changing the meaning. When the meaning changes, responses and behaviour will also change.'
In fact, the 'Meta filters' mentioned above are nothing but our beliefs, values, attitudes, and so on.
Values usually involve 'nominalization:' that is, they express processes (such as 'loving') as entities (like 'love'). Values are often acquired by the unconscious modelling of others in our environment, particularly prior to the age of about eight years. We can think of our largely out-of-consciousness values as attractors or repellors of our behaviour; they are fundamental ideas or things whieh motivate our existence. Values provide the prime motivation for action by generating a 'kinaesthetic push'; after action, values enable us to judge whether that action was right or wrong, good or bad, appropriate or inappropriate. We tend to arrange values hierarchically: when evaluating behaviour, we scrutinize the most important values first. When an individual's internal values are in conflict, they may display either sequential incongruence (such as by saying 'I need to speak to her, but ...') or simultaneous incongruence (such as by nodding the head 'yes' whilst saying 'no').
Beliefs describe generalizations about our actions or needs, and are more conscious that values. Beliefs describe our internal representations: that is, how our internal maps are organized. Core beliefs and values are the most unconscious and pervasive, and determine our personality and sense of identity. Beliefs and values both result from, and justify, our consistent actions. If we notice ourselves acting in a certain way, we tend to justify this by saying that the action must represent a belief. Even though this new belief may conflict with an old one, we subconsciously adopt the new belief in order to remain self-consistent. Attitudes are the most conscious filters, and areclustered around a value and its attendant beliefs; they can be characterised as the total description of a particular subject within our internal map.

So, to another question: is it possible to change beliefs, values and attitudes? And if so, how do we go about this? In NLP terms the answer is an emphatic 'yes,' and brings us to a discussion about the process of 'reframing.' Every person experiences suffering in their lives, whether it be rejection from someone they find attractive, an embarrassing failure at work, or simply the fact that everyone else seems to have more (money, happiness, sex, etc.) than them. People seem easily to form the strong belief that life is a 'vale of tears' and that we must simply accept suffering as our lot on this mortal coil. Moreover, suffering is something we usually don't like to think about. The question in the NLP context is this: if we had a choice would we selectively delete those moments of pain? What would life be like then?

Every individual seems to deal with the suffering that they are bound to feel at some point in his or her own unique way. Some people become very upset and then move on as if it had never happened. Others withdraw, become more cautious or even paralysed by the events. And others seem to thrive on what we would call suffering, seeing each pain as a challenge or someone to fight. A further question asked by NLP relates to how did we each evolve our way of handling emotional pain? How are these built into our maps through beliefs and values? Most of us have a preferred way of coping with pain: one that evolved in an ad-hoc manner in response to experiential learning situations. NLP has modelled individuals who have learned to cope with life's emotional turmoil particularly well, and sees reframing as an important technique used to change the labels on the suffering.

Generally, we tend to put our memories into the broad categories of pain or pleasure. We can diffuse a lot of our past pain by honestly looking at our categories and asking whether they might be relabelled. For example, let us say you are working with a computer and it crashes, destroying your day's work. How do you label the pain? Do you give it a destructive belief label like 'I'm no good with computers'? Or do you give it a constructive one like 'Wow, I'm a good student; I'll learn from that experience and save my work more often in future'? Thus pain experienced in the past can be reframed as a valuable lesson for personal growth, destructive beliefs being exchanged for constructive ones.

In terms of theory. Hall and Bodenhamer (1997) in fact identified seven directions that one can send one's brain off in, providing seven dimensions for reframing- for example: deframing: pulling a piece of meaning apart; reframing: reclassifying some action or idea; pre-framing: setting up a frame ahead of time that establishes a perspective; post-framing: setting up a new time perspective from a future vantage point so that as a person looks back upon an action, it takes on new and different meanings; counter-framing: providing counter examples; outframing: stepping aside from a piece of meaning and setting a new and higher frame about the idea; metaphorical framing: using story, metaphors, and non-propositional language to frame things using an analogous situation. Every frame controls what we pay attention to and how we order our attention. Every frame also controls how we feel, talk, and respond. It is useful to consider some concrete examples to illustrate the theory. These illustrations are taken from Reg Connolly (2005).

1. You're stuck in a traffic jam and are going to be late for an appointment. Instead of fuming and fretting in the belief that everything is conspiring against you to raise your blood pressure and give you a stroke or heart attack, how ean you use the situation? Relax and listen to the radio. Plan how you will catch up on things over the course of the day. Mentally rehearse for a forthcoming event. Enjoy the enforced idleness by studying the mannerisms of other drivers, really looking at your surroundings, or watching the clouds in the sky. Realise that in fact you are in control of certain physical functions and can learn to relax, to lower you heart rate and blood pressure.
2. You were planning to go on holiday with your best friend but she lets you downand chooses not to go after all. For some people it might be all too easy to believe that you are basically unlovely, unpleasant, or unworthy. On the other hand, you could turn the situation around by inviting a different friend, and getting to know him better. Even better, you could experience a totally new adventure by going solo. In this case, you'd also give yourself a golden opportunity to grow in your own relationship with your inner self.
3. A long-planned seaside outing is ruined by rain. Obviously God, and the Elements, hate you personally, and life is awful. However, you could welcome the opportunity to embrace the regenerating, refreshing wind and rain in a beautiful elemental landscape; you could curl up at home with a lovely warm drink, good food, a book you had been meaning to read, and relax fully; you could get on with some study, cleaning, or repairs; you could pick up the 'phone and make time to speak at length to some old and valued friends.
4. You split up from an intimate relationship. On the one hand you could vent emotion and feel hate, anger and blame towards the ex-partner. You might look inwards and feel isolated and sorry for yourself. But what about this: you have had other relationships in the past and will have more in the future. You have survived and are strong. You know that you ean use the intervening time for yourself: living life for yourself, growing, developing. You have a great opportunity to look after yourself and pamper yourself a little by exercising, indulging your interests and hobbies, or extending your career prospects.

The discussion and examples above show the kind of self-talk involved in reframing in terms of values, beliefs and attitudes. Let's now investigate how to reframe on a level more fundamental than the linguistic. To do this we start by defining the concept of 'submodalities,' which are the 'fine details' of a particular 'modality.' For example, 'visual' submodalities are qualities like location, size or distance. They tend to come in contrasting pairs. For example, an image may be associated or dissociated; monochrome or colour; framed or unbounded; fast or slow; focusedor blurred. We might ask: 'Why bother with all this detail?' A good answer is given by Sherwood (2004) who states: "Submodalities are used in a large number of techniques in NLP - by changing the submodalities of a memory or thought, we can change the effect they have on us. For example, for most people, increasing the brightness and size of a memory will increase the feelings associated with that memory - good or bad!" O'Connor and Dermott (2001) explain the use of submodalities like this: "When we change the structure of the experience by changing the submodalities, then the meaning will also change. When the meaning changes, our internal response will also change." As we will see below when we discuss beliefs and values, "We can use the methodologies of NLP to apply the submodalities of a true belief to one that we want to believe truly," as Peta Heskell (2004) tells us. This means that we can actually change what we believe or feel to be important! Bandler and Grinder (1975, 1976), and Battino and South (1999) demonstrate that we can even change bad memories and take away their negative power. Let us say that someone has a behaviour that they feel is objectionable, and which they therefore wish to change.

The first thing one should understand about reframing is the necessity of identifying the 'positive intention' of the behaviour which it is desired to change. The task is then to discover how the good intention can be satisfied by other behaviours: how the objectionable behaviour can be replaced by a behaviour lacking the unwanted side-effects. This, in summary, is the nature of reframing. As a concrete example, imagine that a client is worried about their health because they are a chronic smoker. They are worried about their long term health prognosis but believe they cannot give up the habit as they are physiologically addicted to the nicotine and also psychologically addicted to the calming effects of holding and smoking a cigarette in stressful social situations. One reframe for this client might be to give evidence that the nicotine addiction can be overcome with medical help, and that in fact the smoking has a more stressing than calming effect in a social setting.Let us now turn our attention to how a therapist gains knowledge of whether a particular reframing strategy has succeeded with a particular client. Of course there are all the usual NLP techniques of monitoring physiology and so on, the overall process of which was summarized by Bandler and Grinder (1982, pp 22-23) in the following statements:

'There are two parts to the autonomic nervous system: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The two tend to balance each other through opposite effects...
'Sympathetic activation results in increased muscle tension and a readiness to respond physically to some threat. There is more adrenalin, and the skin whitens as the blood vessels and pupils eonstrict. Parasympathetic activation results in muscle relaxation, flushing of the skin, dilation of the blood vessels, dilation of the pupils, etc. ... What we have been describing is that people tend to have sympathetic activation when presenting a complaint and considering the reframe. Then they shift to parasympathetic activation when the reframe works, which is what you would expect to occur. If the reframing works, what was perceived as a problem to cope with beeomes not a problem at all.'

In summary, in addition to the relabelling process there is a range of other NLP techniques that one ean use to 'reprogram' the past: this then allows us to design a better future, since our past can determine our future unless we are careful. The concept of reframing is based on the understanding that beliefs and values are not, for any individual, fixed for all time; this frees the individual by allowing a wider range of options that are really choices rather than predetermined, preprogrammed response patterns. In terms of therapeutic approaehess, we often restrict ourselves to modifying strategies, states or physiology. However, we find that if changes are not congruent with the client's values, then these changes regress over time. If we also change values, beliefs and attitudes, then a more permanent change of behaviouris likely to result. In fact, unlike may other learning systems, NLP does not provided a rigid recipe of steps that Vv'ill only work under rigorously prescribed conditions. Instead it provides a sort of 'Swiss army knife' of tools that help keep us on course, positive, successful and happy. We might summarise the application of all these ideas in Dale Carnegie's phrase: 'If life gives you lemons: why not choose to make lemonade'?

Of course the fact that we have a choice of beliefs, values and attitudes, and therefore a choice of actions, leaves us with what Yanki Tauber (2005) calls the 'vacuum of choice.' Since we can choose, we must choose some course of action or we will never grow and expand to fill the 'vacuum' of personal development implicit in the Jungian individuation process. Empowerment to choose congruently and appropriately might be seen as a fundamental goal of therapy. However there exists a paradox. Such empowerment is complex. On the one hand a 'helper' might tend to fill the 'helpee' full of advice, provide a plethora of resources, and be constantly supportive and available: after all, the helper wants the helpee to succeed - isn't that the whole point? But, the flipside of this arrangement is that the helper must allow the helpee to 'take responsibility', to 'be themselves,' to undergo 'personal development' - isn't that the whole point? You can see the conflict: as Tauber (2005) says, "there are many subtle judgements to be made. How much to give and how much to hold back. When to be involved and when to cut loose. To grant independence, but not to abandon. To empower, but not to overwhelm." The task of the therapist is to instigate an appropriate relationship with the client, to respect and respond to their needs, to help effect congruent and lasting positive outcomes, and allow them to expand to fill that 'vacuum of choice.'

Application of NLP Principles and Methods in the Personnel Recruitment and Selection Process

Introduction. The Concept of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)

The concept of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, abbreviated NLP, was created around 1976 by Richard Bandler (mathematician) who took and synthesized a series of concepts which previously appeared in cybernetics and systems theory.
The name of neuro-linguistic programming comes from the three fields it reunites: N from neurology (the instruments used are the mind and how we speak), L from linguistics (the instruments used are the language, the way we use it and the way in which it affects us) and P from programming (the instruments used are our actions and how we prioritize them to reach our goals)1.   Joseph O’Connor regards NLP as a science of human behaviour and proposes its treatment as epistemology, as methodology and as technology.   As epistemology it holds a system of knowledge and values, as methodology it offers processes and procedures for the application of knowledge and values, while as technology it offers techniques (tools) for the application of knowledge and values2. This concept has been used recently to increase the level of efficiency related to the management of communication and change in an organization.  

NLP principles and methods are based on successful behaviour patterns (good practice patterns), which have already proven their effectiveness in certain fields3.  This pattern is considered very useful in the study of organizational culture and has become a preoccupation of the last decade because of the increased complexity of organizations, due to technological changes (IT development), encouragement of modern production methods (development of industrial robots), and changes regarding the environment (development of eco-marketing or green products4 ).  In particular, the technological improvements have led to a series of changes regarding the type of organizational culture (these organizations are on the lookout for qualified experts at high level who use their own judgment and experience to make technical decisions where managers are not sufficiently qualified to do it).

Thus, Dilts Robert developed five logical levels of change (also known as neurological levels or logical levels of thinking). 

1. Goal – For whom? It is about the connection with a wider system (the community). What impact do you have in your community, in the town where you live and work, in your culture and the others′ culture (current society is multicultural) or in the culture of your own organization?
2. Mission – Who? Who are you as individual or company? What role do you play in reaching the goal proposed? How do you see yourself as a person / organization – for example I am a successful person
3. Values – Why? Why do you do a certain thing? In what do you believe or what do you treasure most? As individual, you may think that you have the freedom to do anything. Or you can treasure/appreciate honesty. From the company’s standpoint, a company can treasure good services offered to customers and/or welfare and motivation of the staff.
4. Strategies – How? How do you do things? As individual or company, what are the capabilities, skills, strategies and plans of action?
5. Behaviour – Where? When? With whom? Where, when and with whom do you display your behaviour? What external influences will it determine?

These logical levels of change can be used by organizations to determine a series of positive changes in the organization and to create added value.
Employees’ Recruitment and Selection Process and the Application of NLP Principles and Methods The main purpose of any recruitment and selection process is the prediction of performance at workplace. The evaluation of personality of applicants in the recruitment and selection stage represents one of the most effective strategies and over 80% of successful organizations use such instruments. The benefits of a correctly done recruitment and selection process eliminate the time invested in interviews with unsuitable applicants and the human resources managers receive fast accurate information on the critical aspects of each applicant. Thus, it increases the probability of hiring suitable applicants for the position and the organization as well as the performance in the organization and the diminution of staff fluctuation.

Nowadays the recruitment and selection process is regarded from three perspectives: 1. The added value perspective - which means that the HR department has to create a human resources strategy which supports the new employees who bring added value. The new employees who bring added value form hierarchically-oriented groups and thus, we can appoint a route of value which highlights those processes in which the input is turned into output with high added value – output which gets directly to the customer. A major contribution in appropriate proportions and directed towards the client also has the type of organizational culture in which the new employees create added value. There is a close connection between this type and the NLP model. The five neurological levels from NLP model can be transposed in the coordinates of an organization – which encourages the culture oriented towards personal development and which tries to measure exactly the size of its need for change and the employees of which create added value – as follows: o

Level 1 Identity: Vision and Mission;
Level 2 Belief: Culture and Philosophy;
Level 3 Capacities: Knowledge and Skills;
Level 4 Behaviour: Practice and Customs;
Level 5 Environment: Circumstances, Equipment, Location.

Nowadays the preoccupation regarding the five neurological levels from the NLP model and their transposition in terms of an organization brings up the answer to the following question: “If I worked (in an organization, what expectations would there be of me and how I should behave6 to be able to identify myself with the existing type of organizational culture, in conditions of real competition?” - and how should I do my job in order to create measurable added value? The answer to this question is closely connected to the employees’ personal motivation, the actions of employees who generate culture, the extent to which it influences the fact that the organization is run by rules (which means that it generates predictability but also rigidity), or the organization is run by values (which means that it generates flexibility, capacity of adjustment and innovation, but it is also less predictable), the positive or negative changes which can appear in the organization if it uses and understands correctly the five neurological levels.

The need for change in organizational cultures is rooted in the emergence of the current economic crisis, which changed the economic environment and repositioned organizational culture towards itself and towards its own employees (and it is exactly under these circumstances that the organizational culture lays emphasis on how things are done, not on which things to do or what is to do in the organization).
So the model of the five neurological levels can be used to identify a new synergetic model, namely the POE (Personal, Organizational, Entrepreneurial) model which tries to give integrated solutions to problems at each of these levels.
 
Perspective Based on Top-Down Values
Any organization which has its five neurological levels aligned is capable of maintaining excellence because the organization and its staff share the same beliefs and values and go in the same direction.
In the event that the values of the organization are at the level of the top management team, they imprint identity to organizational culture and the best way of promoting the identity of your own organizational culture is done through the recruitment and selection process – in agreement, of course, with the values desired and promoted by the organization.
If we identify a recruitment and selection process based on top-down values – the organization can hire the best and most qualified (specialized) staff from a field of interest. However, if between him and his job, on one hand, and organizational culture, on the other hand, there is no compatibility, the selection is definitely not the best one and that person will leave the organization shortly after employment.
There are studies lying at the basis of this statement, namely, the staff fluctuation is reduced by 30% if the recruitment and selection process use instruments which can really identify the values of the potential employees and the type of organizational culture they would fit8.
In this respect, the culture of an organization can be helped or destroyed by certain employees, so we can speak of a matrix of employee types (The Matrix of types of employees). 

Stars are the most loved employees, because they do the right thing (they have acquired a good performance) and are those who always choose the right way (they behave in a way which accepts to build the desired organizational culture).  
o Employees with high potential are the employees whose behaviour is treasured because they do things in the right way, but need more exercise at competence level (with support at cognitive level – trainings and at emotional level – encouragements, moral support, they can be the future stars in the organization).  
o Zombi are the employees who do not have performances (are mediocre) and their behaviour does not correspond to the cultural aspirations of the organization. Their capacity of doing harm is somehow attenuated by their lack of credibility. They do not bring added value in the organization, but the damages they cause to organizational culture are still limited.  
o Vampires are the employees who represent a real threat for the organization because they have good and very good performances, but their goal in the organization is contrary to the desired organizational culture. Owing to their performances, they acquire power and influence, and in time manage to gather around them employees who listen to them and follow them in their action – and above all – share their set of values which is totally different from those of the organization.  
Therefore, we can say that Vampires and Zombi can attack the organization’s Stars and its Employees with potential by their unwillingness to support organizational culture and its common values and by trying, by any means, to impose their own values which are totally different and lead to the loss of the organization’s values and its performances in this ‘fight’, only to create non-value. In order to be able to bring performance to the organization and create added value, the organizational culture must be assimilated to a strategy which supports leadership and employees’ responsibilization since the recruitment and selection stage, thus enhancing the commitment between them and the organization.
Organizational Culture and its Compatibility with the Leadership Style Approached If we always start from what we treasure and appreciate we will realize that we reward and sanction the same elements in those with whom we collaborate. That is why, when we speak of the recruitment and selection of top management or middle management it is as much more important and absolutely necessary to make sure that there is real compatibility between their values and organizational culture. Managers have to instil the values of the organization in their own employees with whom they must form a team and get out of the comfort area9. The exit from the comfort area implies change. The use of neurological levels to explain and understand organizational change implies the knowledge in a direct and involved way of the two-diagonal model (diagonal of change and diagonal of resistance). If the change in the strategy of the organization means that the staff is encouraged to act differently but without receiving first the necessary training because the budget for training and improvement has been cancelled – it means that the diagonal of resistance is more powerful than the diagonal of change. If the change in the organization’s strategy means that the staff is encouraged to behave differently and the staff received the necessary training and the change of strategy is done based on a working platform (meaning that managers must have clear, well measurable objectives from all three perspectives: human, material and informational. Each member of the team has to have individual objectives correlated with the general objectives of the manager and with the common performance objectives of the organization and with the objectives related to the development of organizational culture by the implementation of systems which bring performance, so to support exactly the expected change) – it means that the diagonal of change is more powerful than the diagonal of resistance.

It is very important that in an organization it is understood by the whole team what are the power poles, the games of influence which intensify or erode the dynamics of the management team and of course, the compatibility which is established between organizational culture and leadership style.

Conclusions

Neuro-Linguistic Programming is one of the new concepts used in the acquisition of efficiency in the management of communication and in the management of change of an organization. We can say that NLP principles and methods are based on successful behaviour patterns (good practice patterns) and these models are considered very useful in the study of organizational culture and have become a preoccupation of the last decade because of the larger and larger complexity of organizations. The organizations, like any living body, have to become organizations based on learning, which can change and adjust to external environment which is subjected to ongoing change. Because of the ever changing external environment – the recruitment and selection process regarded from the three perspectives: of added value, of top-down value and compatibility between organizational culture and leadership style – has the clearly defined purpose of prediction of performance at workplace and the evaluation of the personality of applicants starting with this stage. The application of NLP principles and methods – so the model of the five neurological levels – in the recruitment and selection process will determine the identification of a new synergetic model called POA model which seeks to give integrated solutions to problems at personal, organizational, and entrepreneurial level

Benefits of motivational techniques

With labour shortages adding yet more headaches to businesses across horticulture, the promise of a 20 per cent-plus improvement in productivity for casual labour on piece-rate tasks is almost unbelievable. The HDC-funded Champion Picker project, where these results were verified, was summarised in a DVD sent to growers in 2006. Many farms have since benefited from it and the HDC has commissioned a follow-up piece of work by fruit consuitant Chris Rose to produce a Champior] Supervisor DVD. which will be available to growers m early June. This time, the labour-performance project has been widened to include top-fruit and vegetable harvesting such as runner-bean picking and cauliflower harvesting.

How do you change the performance of a piece-rate worker so dramatically? Rose, during his career as a farm manager and as a consultant, has made a point of observing the ways in which people approach tasks on farms andhas studied sets of data to compare workers' performance, "The problem is not so much the shortage of workers as the huge difference in performance between the worst and the best. It can be as much as a factor of three or four times, and I believe these gaps in performance are industrywide and not just confined to harvesting," says Rose. The solution, he believes, lies notjust in improved training but in motivation. Work study, as a field of research, was ali the rage 30 years ago across industry, but "the man with the clipboard" observing workers performing a task often did more harm than good, fhe workers were more likely to perceive recommendations as criticism and improvements were not always sustained. Now, however, psychology is being deployed to find the key to making lasting improvement.

The technique, which Rose and his colleague Kathy Strong, a human behaviour and performance specialist, have introduced is neuro-linguistic programming (NLP),

Breaking down the name NLP helps to clarify what it is all about: • "neuro"' refers to the brain and nervous system; • "linguistic" is verbal and non-verbai language used to communicate; • "programming" is the unique way you put all this together to create your behaviour. Once formed, a "programme" - or behaviour - tends to remain consistent over time. And there are good and bad behaviours, some working well for an individual and others with undesirable results that hold them back, NLP is used to change the programmes that are not working and to create new ones that do.

The Champion Picker initiative What the programme (ably demonstrated on the HDC Champion Picker DVD) does IS take pickers through a series of mental and physical "dos and don'ts" to enable them to attain maximum han/esting speed, while maintaining fruit duality. By investigating all aspects of why the best pickers are so good and identifying the common factors, it has been possible to show everyone how it can be done.

Mind over matter Getting people to use both hands to pick, to use the right posture, to make iuil use of picking aids such as sledges, and even to place the punnets and trays in exactly the right position are vital, but this is only a part of the picture. Rose and Strong discovered that having a mental goal was the real key to "champion" performance. The best pickers can make realiy good money and growers should not be sfraid of paying the best workers £12 an hour, when the average ones only achieve £7.

For pickers who have a mental image of what they want to buy with the money they earn - be it enough to pay for university or buy a new car - whatever the goal is, that is the motivator. One of the pickers that Rose observed learned how to equate each day's work to a part of the house - such as a window or a door - that he was saving up to buy. What they also discovered was that the slowest, least-able pickers didn't have a goal, or they had mucti lower expectations than the best.

Part of the programme helps to coach those without a goal to think of one. to raise the expectations of the underachievers and then encourage them to get better results in order to reach their newly found goals. Concordia executive director Christine Lumb is happy to recommend growers to use the Champion Picker concept. She says: "We support it because it is best practice, it's a proven technique." She mentions other benefits. "It motivates the pickers, they are happier at work, leading to a happier feeling for everyone on the farm. "Obviously, employers are pleased and workers can realise a potential they never knew they had.

These are often young people who find that they are not just doing a job, but doing it well: so for the individual it can have the big plus of personal development." Lumb points out another useful spinoff when labour is in such short supply: "Having a positive experience means that workers are more likely to consider coming back next year Strawberry picking is not an easy job - it's difficult to pick weli and you ache all over Howeverby using the Champion Picker approach they can achieve good money - and the kudos of being at the top of the list for performance is an added bonus."

Training targets Strawberry grower Alistair Brooks' Langdon Manor Farm, near Faversham. Kent, has been a trial site for the whole project, so he is well-placed to assess what NLP has to offer growers. "By targeting poorly performing pickers, the techniques have enabled us to lift the performance of ttie poorest to above the mean of the group, therefore doublingtheir output," says Brooks. The whole philosophy for his farm is that labour is a scarce and expensive resource that needs special attention; it is not just about labour productivity buthow to increase the attractiveness of the job to raise the bar still further. Training, re-training and motivating pickers is key to success. As a result. Brooks has been able to absorb all of the increases in labour costs over the past five years. A fruit production company that has embraced the Champion Picker scheme over the past two years is Well-Pict European. Farms manager Dave Thomson offers some good advice on how to make maximum use of the technique. "We've all tended to train workers on how to pick to quality standards, but not how to pick more quickly. We target the slowest ones, where the greatest gains are to be made - doubling their speeds is not uncommon, and therefore doubling their money," he says."We offer the training to everyone on the farms and I believe it is applicable to any job on piecework, as long as there is enough time to develop some speed and allow supervisors to observe the habits of 'champion' workers or teams and then pass them on. We have tried il on jobs like runner-cutting, de-blossom ing, strawberry planting and summer pruning of apples."

Supervising success The new HDC Champion Superv/sorDVD brings together training skills for a variety of harvesting tasks across a range of crops and includes sections for growers and managers. These include the secrets of "individual champions" and "champion teams", along with "how to grow champions".
The DVD begins with a ringing endorsement and a call for growers to act on the results by vegetable grower and HDC member Phillip Effingham. who is also technical and development director of Marshalls and chairman of the Brassica Growers' Association. He says: "I was very impressed with these results - why don't you try them within your business?" A new area explored in the DVD challenges managers" preconceptions of poor performance by, for example, certain types of workers, individuals and teams. HDC communications manager Ross Newham thinks it is "really impor tant that growers challenge their own preconceptions". He adds: "These ideas of modeiling people can help in any in dustry and the new DVD can help grow ers and their staff to recognise principles that are applicable to any crop." Brooks* recommendation of the Champion Picker and Supervisor techniques to growers everywhere is a rousing one: "They owe it to themselves and to their staff to give it a go - of course, explore every way of increasing labour efficiency, but this is a quick fix. Get your supervisors on side and the workforce will follow.

ALEXANDER KOTCHUBEI RAAMATUD

“NLP ja juhi mõtteskeemid”, 2014.a

Raamatust saab teada:

-millised on inimeste mõtteskeemid ja nende tüüpilised probleemid
-millised on levinumad NLP- mudelid
-millised on juhi levinumad mõtteskeemid
-milline on 5+ juhtimismudel
-millised NLP-mudelid sobivad müügi- ja teenindustöö tõhustamiseks
-kuidas mõjutada inimesi ja tõhustada oma veenmisoskusi

Loe lähemalt

“Mõtlemise tarkus”, 2015.a

See on väärtuslik praktiline käsiraamat oma mõtete õigeks sättimiseks, kui väga lihtsustatult öelda. Kes on varem neurolingvistilise programmeerimisega kokku puutunud, teab, mida siit raamatust leida võib. Kes lühendit NLP veel ei tunne, saab praktiliste näidete, õpetuste ja tehnikate varal teada, mismoodi NLP meist igaüht aidata võib. Raamat sobib kõigile, keda huvitab mõttetarkus nii perekonnas kui ka kollektiivis toimimiseks.

Loe lähemalt

NLP ÕPPEMATERJALID

“NLP Põhikursuse SmartCard”

NLP Põhikursuse SmartCard on kergesti kaasas kantav ja infootsingu poolest üks universaalsem abivahend igale NLP kasutajale. Smartkaardi abil saab NLP teavet hoida struktureerituna vastavalt teemadele.

Loe lähemalt

NLP KURSUSE ÕPPEMATERJAL

Varsti tulekul!

Loe lähemalt

osta kohe